Artificial Intelligence (AI) has seen tremendous advances in recent years, fueled by growth in compute power, availability of data, and improvements in machine learning algorithms. A plethora of AI projects are being undertaken by researchers, companies, and hobbyists alike to push the frontiers of this technology. Many of these projects leverage publicly available datasets to train and test AI models. This article explores 10 such compelling AI projects across different domains along with the datasets that can be utilized.
Sentiment analysis refers to the use of natural language processing and text analysis techniques to identify and extract subjective information and determine the sentiment or attitude expressed in a text. A common application is classifying product or movie reviews as positive, negative or neutral based on the text content.
- IMDB Movie Review Dataset: Contains 50,000 highly polarized reviews from the Internet Movie Database labeled as positive or negative. This is one of the most widely used datasets for binary sentiment classification.
- Yelp Review Dataset: Includes over 4.7 million user reviews of businesses like restaurants, bars, salons etc. on Yelp. The reviews are labeled on a scale of 1 to 5 representing the star rating.
- Amazon Product Review Dataset: Contains over 130 million customer reviews from Amazon.com including text, star rating, product information and more. Useful for multiclass sentiment analysis.
The goal is to build a machine learning model that can accurately determine sentiment from text reviews and classify them as positive, negative or neutral. The model can be evaluated on metrics like accuracy, F1-score, precision and recall.
Image recognition involves identifying and classifying objects within images and is a core task in computer vision. Real-world applications include facial recognition, object detection in self-driving cars and automated image captioning.
- CIFAR-10: Consists of 60,000 32×32 pixel color images across 10 classes like airplanes, dogs, horses etc. A benchmark dataset for image classification.
- ImageNet: Large scale dataset with over 14 million images across 20,000 categories. Widely used to train deep neural networks for image classification.
- MNIST: Database of 70,000 grayscale handwritten digits. Excellent starter dataset for computer vision and image processing tasks.
- COCO: Collection of over 200,000 labeled images depicting complex everyday scenes with common objects in natural contexts. Used for object detection and segmentation.
The goal is to develop image recognition models that can accurately classify images into predefined categories based on the image contents. Evaluation metrics include classification accuracy, precision, recall and F1-score.
Object detection involves localizing and classifying objects within images, capturing both what the objects are as well as where they are located. This enables applications like detecting pedestrians in autonomous driving systems.
- PASCAL VOC: Contains photographs collected from Flickr depicting 20 object classes like people, animals, vehicles and indoor objects. Annotations outline object locations.
- MS COCO: In addition to image classification, it also includes object segmentations and captions making it useful for detection and segmentation tasks.
- Open Images Dataset: Over 9 million URLs to images annotated with labels spanning over 6000 categories. Extensive variety of objects.
The goal is to build a model that can accurately identify multiple objects within an image, classify them into predefined categories and localize them with bounding boxes specifying their extent. Metrics like mean average precision are used to evaluate performance.
Recommender systems aim to provide personalized suggestions of products, content or services to users based on their preferences, past behavior and interactions. They are ubiquitous on platforms like Amazon, Netflix and YouTube.
- MovieLens: Contains over 20 million user ratings on a scale of 1 to 5 for various movies. Also includes genre information and user demographics.
- Last.fm: Includes over 120 million timestamped songs listened to by over 2000 users. Can be used to build music recommenders.
- Amazon Product Reviews: In addition to sentiment analysis, this dataset can also be leveraged to build recommenders for products on Amazon.
The objective is to develop a system that can accurately predict a user’s rating or preferences for items based on their previous interactions as well as similarities with other users. Performance metrics include root mean squared error, mean average error and precision-recall.
Time Series Forecasting
Time series forecasting uses historical data to make predictions about future values. It has applications in forecasting stock prices, demand planning, weather prediction and epidemiology.
- Web Traffic Time Series Forecasting: Contains approximately 145k time series of daily web traffic data. Used in a Kaggle competition to forecast future traffic.
- Multivariate Weather Dataset: Includes temperature, pressure, humidity measurements collected from various sensors over time. Used to predict weather patterns.
- Stock Price Data: Historical daily open, high, low, close prices and volumes for stocks, indices and ETFs can be obtained from sources like Yahoo Finance.
The objective is to build models that can make accurate multi-step forecasts of future values based on past time series data. Performance is evaluated using metrics like mean absolute error and root mean squared error.
Natural Language Processing
Natural language processing (NLP) focuses on training computers to understand, interpret and manipulate human language.NLP powers applications like machine translation, text summarization and question answering.
- SNLI: Collection of 570k human annotated sentence pairs useful for training and evaluating inference algorithms.
- SQuAD: Question-answer dataset consisting of 100k questions posed on Wikipedia articles where the answers are segments of text from the corresponding passages.
- General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE): Collection of 9 NLP tasks ranging from sentiment analysis to textual entailment covering diverse data formats and difficulty levels.
The goal is to develop NLP models capable of effectively accomplishing different linguistic tasks evaluated on metrics like accuracy, F1 score, BLEU score etc. depending on the specific problem.
Speech recognition focuses on automatically converting human speech into text, enabling voice search, transcription and virtual assistants.
- LibriSpeech: Derived from public domain LibriVox audiobooks. Includes 1000 hours of read English speech at 16Khz sampling rate.
- Common Voice: Open source multi-language dataset collected by Mozilla. Contains over 7000 hours of voice samples contributed by over 400k participants.
- CHiME Speech Separation and Recognition Challenge: Recordings of spoken commands in noisy environments from public places like cafes and buses. Useful for building robust recognizers.
The goal is to train models that can accurately transcribe human speech into written text. Performance is measured with word error rate which calculates the deviation between the transcription and the ground truth.
Generative Adversarial Networks
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are used to generate new synthetic data similar to real data. Applications include generating photorealistic images to creating Deepfakes.
- CelebA: Large-scale face attributes dataset with over 200K celebrity images annotated with features like hair color, emotion and accessory.
- LSUN: Scene understanding dataset with millions of labeled images covering classes like bedroom, tower and kitchen.
- VLCS: street view house numbers extracted from Google Street View imagery for working with multi-digit sequences.
The objective is to develop a GAN model that can generate new synthetic samples that closely match the distribution of images in the original training dataset. Evaluation metrics for image generation tasks include Fréchet Inception distance and the Inception score.
Medical Image Analysis
Analyzing medical images using computer vision and deep learning methods assists doctors in making accurate diagnoses, treatment planning and predicting patient outcomes.
- Chest X-Ray Images (Pneumonia): Contains thousands of X-ray images categorized as normal or depicting pneumonia. Can be used to diagnose pneumonia from chest X-rays automatically.
- Diabetic Retinopathy Detection: Dataset with 35k retina images categorized based on absence/presence of diabetic retinopathy. Used to identify related eye diseases from retinal scans.
- Digital Database for Screening Mammography: Hundreds of breast x-ray images to build models detecting breast cancer from mammogram results.
The goal is to create AI systems that can analyze medical images to provide automated diagnoses, radiology recommendations etc. Performance is gauged on metrics relevant to the medical condition such as sensitivity, specificity, AUC-ROC score etc.
Anomaly detection involves identifying data points that are unusual and deviate from expected behavior in a dataset. It has applications in fraud analytics, system health monitoring and cyber intrusion detection.
- Credit Card Fraud Detection: Contains anonymized credit card transactions labeled as fraudulent or valid. Model identifies anomalous transactions likely to be fraud.
- KDD Cup 1999: Widely used network intrusion detection benchmark dataset with millions of normal connections and known attack types. Used to detect cybersecurity attacks.
- NASA shuttle telemetry data: Sensor measurements during shuttle launches. Used to determine anomalous sensor readings leading to catastrophic system failures.
The objective is to build models that can discern anomalous data points that differ significantly from the majority norm. Evaluation involves metrics like precision, recall and F1-scores in accurately classifying anomalies and normal points.
This covers a diverse selection of AI project ideas across many domains including computer vision, NLP, speech, time series data, recommendation systems and more. The presented datasets enable training, evaluating and experimenting with AI techniques on real-world data at scale. Working through these projects can help build valuable hands-on expertise in applied machine learning.